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A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The liquid will not always boil. (In North America, the term "furnace" is normally used if the reason is not to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in various heating or procedures applications,[1 - [2 - including drinking water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power era, food preparation, and sanitation.

Materials
The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, of the austenitic types especially, is not found in wetted parts of boilers due to corrosion and stress corrosion breaking.[3 - However, ferritic stainless steel is often found in superheater sections that won't be exposed to boiling water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the Western "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4 -
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is easier fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for steam locomotives), due to its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as metal) are used instead.

For much of the Victorian "age of steam", the only materials used for boilermaking was the highest quality of wrought iron, with set up by rivetting. This iron was often from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice moved towards the use of steel instead, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded building, which is quicker and requires less labour. It ought to be mentioned, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode much slower than their modern-day steel counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the durability of old wrought-iron boilers far more advanced than those of welded metal boilers.

Cast iron might be utilized for the heating vessel of domestic water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is to create warm water usually, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and try to avoid boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure steam boilers.
Boiler Repairs Islington, Barnsbury, Canonbury, N1, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service http://boiler-repairs-islington.co.uk - Show more>>>
Energy
The source of heating for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric vapor boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission can be used as a heat source for producing steam also, either straight (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised heat exchangers called "steam generators" (PWR). High temperature recovery vapor generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two methods to measure the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Immediate method -immediate approach to boiler efficiency test is more useful or even more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor stream Hg= Enthalpy of saturated steam in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of feed water in kcal/kg q= quantity of gas use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to measure the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we are in need of a following parameter like

Ultimate analysis of fuel (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gas in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Configurations
Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations:

Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" in which a open fire heats a partially filled water container from below. 18th century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large volumes of very low-pressure vapor, barely above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low.
Flued boiler with a couple of large flues-an early forerunner or kind of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of a fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, drinking water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume still left above to accommodate the vapor (vapor space). This is the type of boiler used in all steam locomotives nearly. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept completely surrounded by water in order to maintain the temperatures of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating system surface which may be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through another parallel tube or a lot of money of multiple pipes (two-pass or return flue boiler); additionally the gases may be taken along the edges and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a lot of money of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating surface compared to a single pipe and further increases heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers have a comparatively low rate of vapor production usually, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mainly burn off solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to those of the gas or water variety.

Diagram of a water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this type, tubes filled with water are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations. Water tubes connect large drums Often, the lower ones made up of water and top of the ones steam and water; in other cases, such as a mono-tube boiler, water is circulated with a pump through a succession of coils. This kind gives high steam production rates generally, but less storage capacity than the above mentioned. Water pipe boilers can be designed to exploit any high temperature source and tend to be preferred in high-pressure applications since the high-pressure water/vapor is contained within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler where tubes are close together and water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube vapor generator in which the pipe is permanently filled with water. Super fast boiler, the pipe is held so hot that the water give food to is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers got some use in cars in the 19th century and this use continued in to the early 20th century. .

1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been mixed in the next manner: the firebox includes an set up of water pipes, called thermic siphons. The gases then pass through a conventional firetube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed - but have fulfilled with little success far away.
Sectional boiler. In a ensemble iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is included inside ensemble iron areas.[citation needed - These areas are assembled on site to create the finished boiler.
Safety
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations like the American Culture of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop criteria and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of guidelines and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.[5 -

Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could open up poorly, resulting in a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When drinking water is changed into steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original travels and volume down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. As a result of this, vapor is a great way of moving energy and warmth around a site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale corrosion and formation. At best, this increases energy costs and can result in poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter vegetation and unreliable procedure. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failing and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler pipes can also aerosol scalding-hot vapor and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal in to the open fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories could demolish entire structures.[6 -

A boiler which has a loss of give food to drinking water and is permitted to boil dry out can be extremely dangerous. If give food to water is sent in to the vacant boiler then, the tiny cascade of inbound drinking water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metallic shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be controlled even by basic safety vapor valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is bigger than the make-up water source could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and INSURANCE PROVIDER as a method to assist in preventing this problem from taking place, and thus reduce their insurance statements.[7 - [8 -

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on the steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce steam to be utilized at saturation heat; that is, saturated steam. Superheated vapor boilers vaporize water and then further high temperature the steam in a superheater. This provides steam at higher heat, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating place because the higher vapor temperature requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature.[citation needed - There are several ways to circumvent this issue, typically by giving an economizer that heats the give food to drinking water, a combustion air heating unit in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. A couple of advantages to superheated steam that may, and will often, increase overall efficiency of both vapor generation and its utilization: gains in input temp to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There may also be useful restrictions in using moist steam, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to escape, the high temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous injury to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak indicates its existence clearly.

Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The temperatures in this area is between 1 typically,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb high temperature by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing heat from a fluid. Some are a mixture of both types. Through either method, the extreme warmth in the flue gas path will also heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within. While the heat range of the vapor in the superheater goes up, the pressure of the vapor will not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9 - Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a power place.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of electric power frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. In contrast to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a higher pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases that occurs; the liquid is neither liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid. There is no era of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which steam bubbles can develop. As the liquid expands through the turbine levels, its thermodynamic condition drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which converts the power generator from which power is ultimately extracted. The fluid at that point may be considered a mixture of steam and liquid droplets as it passes into the condenser. This results in less fuel use and for that reason less greenhouse gas production slightly. The word "boiler" shouldn't be used for a supercritical pressure vapor generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this device.
Boiler Repairs Islington, Barnsbury, Canonbury, N1, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service http://boiler-repairs-islington.co.uk - Boiler Repairs Islington, Barnsbury, Canonbury, N1, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service...
Accessories
Boiler fittings and accessories
Pressuretrols to control the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a safety by setting the upper limit of steam pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which settings when the boiler fires to keep up pressure, and for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which handles the amount of fire.
Safety valve: It is utilized to alleviate pressure and stop possible explosion of a boiler.
Water level signals: They show the operator the level of liquid in the boiler, known as a sight glass also, water measure or drinking water column.
Bottom level blowdown valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and rest on the bottom of a boiler. As the name implies, this valve is usually located on underneath of the boiler, and is occasionally opened to use the pressure in the boiler to press these particulates out.
Constant blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to flee continuously. Its purpose is to prevent water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be carried over with the steam - a disorder known as priming. Blowdown is also often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water.
Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a container. Most commonly found on a drinking water boiler.
Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the vapor can 'flash' safely and be used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere as the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
Automatic blowdown/constant heat recovery system: This technique allows the boiler to blowdown only once makeup water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the make-up water. No flash container is normally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the temperature of the make-up water.
Hand openings: These are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installing tubes and inspection of internal surfaces.
Vapor drum internals, some screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that can be used to turn from the burner or shut down gasoline to the boiler to avoid it from running once the water moves below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burnt without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure.
Surface blowdown collection: It provides a way for removing foam or other lightweight non-condensible chemicals that have a tendency to float on top of water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It really is designed to circulate drinking water back again to the boiler after they have expelled some of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater line. This may be suited to the relative aspect of the boiler, below the water level just, or to the top of the boiler.[10 -
Top give food to: Within this design for feedwater injection, the water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This can reduce boiler fatigue caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over some trays water is quickly heated which can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater pipes or bundles: A series of pipes or bundles of pipes in water drum or the vapor drum designed to cool superheated vapor, in order to supply auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry out vapor.
Chemical injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main vapor stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main steam stop/check valve: It is utilized on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Energy oil system:gasoline oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure measure attachment:
Name dish:
Registration dish:
A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The liquid will not always boil. (In North America, the term "furnace" is normally used if the reason is not to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in various heating or procedures applications,[1 - [2 - including drinking water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power era, food preparation, and sanitation.

Materials
The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, of the austenitic types especially, is not found in wetted parts of boilers due to corrosion and stress corrosion breaking.[3 - However, ferritic stainless steel is often found in superheater sections that won't be exposed to boiling water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the Western "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4 -
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is easier fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for steam locomotives), due to its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as metal) are used instead.

For much of the Victorian "age of steam", the only materials used for boilermaking was the highest quality of wrought iron, with set up by rivetting. This iron was often from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice moved towards the use of steel instead, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded building, which is quicker and requires less labour. It ought to be mentioned, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode much slower than their modern-day steel counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the durability of old wrought-iron boilers far more advanced than those of welded metal boilers.

Cast iron might be utilized for the heating vessel of domestic water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is to create warm water usually, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and try to avoid boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure steam boilers.
Boiler Repairs Islington, Barnsbury, Canonbury, N1, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service http://boiler-repairs-islington.co.uk - Show more>>>
Energy
The source of heating for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric vapor boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission can be used as a heat source for producing steam also, either straight (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised heat exchangers called "steam generators" (PWR). High temperature recovery vapor generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two methods to measure the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Immediate method -immediate approach to boiler efficiency test is more useful or even more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor stream Hg= Enthalpy of saturated steam in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of feed water in kcal/kg q= quantity of gas use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to measure the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we are in need of a following parameter like

Ultimate analysis of fuel (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gas in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Configurations
Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations:

Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" in which a open fire heats a partially filled water container from below. 18th century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large volumes of very low-pressure vapor, barely above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low.
Flued boiler with a couple of large flues-an early forerunner or kind of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of a fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, drinking water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume still left above to accommodate the vapor (vapor space). This is the type of boiler used in all steam locomotives nearly. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept completely surrounded by water in order to maintain the temperatures of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating system surface which may be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through another parallel tube or a lot of money of multiple pipes (two-pass or return flue boiler); additionally the gases may be taken along the edges and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a lot of money of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating surface compared to a single pipe and further increases heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers have a comparatively low rate of vapor production usually, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mainly burn off solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to those of the gas or water variety.

Diagram of a water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this type, tubes filled with water are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations. Water tubes connect large drums Often, the lower ones made up of water and top of the ones steam and water; in other cases, such as a mono-tube boiler, water is circulated with a pump through a succession of coils. This kind gives high steam production rates generally, but less storage capacity than the above mentioned. Water pipe boilers can be designed to exploit any high temperature source and tend to be preferred in high-pressure applications since the high-pressure water/vapor is contained within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler where tubes are close together and water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube vapor generator in which the pipe is permanently filled with water. Super fast boiler, the pipe is held so hot that the water give food to is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers got some use in cars in the 19th century and this use continued in to the early 20th century. .

1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been mixed in the next manner: the firebox includes an set up of water pipes, called thermic siphons. The gases then pass through a conventional firetube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed - but have fulfilled with little success far away.
Sectional boiler. In a ensemble iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is included inside ensemble iron areas.[citation needed - These areas are assembled on site to create the finished boiler.
Safety
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations like the American Culture of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop criteria and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of guidelines and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.[5 -

Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could open up poorly, resulting in a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When drinking water is changed into steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original travels and volume down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. As a result of this, vapor is a great way of moving energy and warmth around a site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale corrosion and formation. At best, this increases energy costs and can result in poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter vegetation and unreliable procedure. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failing and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler pipes can also aerosol scalding-hot vapor and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal in to the open fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories could demolish entire structures.[6 -

A boiler which has a loss of give food to drinking water and is permitted to boil dry out can be extremely dangerous. If give food to water is sent in to the vacant boiler then, the tiny cascade of inbound drinking water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metallic shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be controlled even by basic safety vapor valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is bigger than the make-up water source could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and INSURANCE PROVIDER as a method to assist in preventing this problem from taking place, and thus reduce their insurance statements.[7 - [8 -

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on the steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce steam to be utilized at saturation heat; that is, saturated steam. Superheated vapor boilers vaporize water and then further high temperature the steam in a superheater. This provides steam at higher heat, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating place because the higher vapor temperature requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature.[citation needed - There are several ways to circumvent this issue, typically by giving an economizer that heats the give food to drinking water, a combustion air heating unit in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. A couple of advantages to superheated steam that may, and will often, increase overall efficiency of both vapor generation and its utilization: gains in input temp to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There may also be useful restrictions in using moist steam, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to escape, the high temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous injury to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak indicates its existence clearly.

Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The temperatures in this area is between 1 typically,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb high temperature by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing heat from a fluid. Some are a mixture of both types. Through either method, the extreme warmth in the flue gas path will also heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within. While the heat range of the vapor in the superheater goes up, the pressure of the vapor will not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9 - Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a power place.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of electric power frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. In contrast to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a higher pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases that occurs; the liquid is neither liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid. There is no era of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which steam bubbles can develop. As the liquid expands through the turbine levels, its thermodynamic condition drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which converts the power generator from which power is ultimately extracted. The fluid at that point may be considered a mixture of steam and liquid droplets as it passes into the condenser. This results in less fuel use and for that reason less greenhouse gas production slightly. The word "boiler" shouldn't be used for a supercritical pressure vapor generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this device.
Boiler Repairs Islington, Barnsbury, Canonbury, N1, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service http://boiler-repairs-islington.co.uk - Boiler Repairs Islington, Barnsbury, Canonbury, N1, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service...
Accessories
Boiler fittings and accessories
Pressuretrols to control the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a safety by setting the upper limit of steam pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which settings when the boiler fires to keep up pressure, and for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which handles the amount of fire.
Safety valve: It is utilized to alleviate pressure and stop possible explosion of a boiler.
Water level signals: They show the operator the level of liquid in the boiler, known as a sight glass also, water measure or drinking water column.
Bottom level blowdown valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and rest on the bottom of a boiler. As the name implies, this valve is usually located on underneath of the boiler, and is occasionally opened to use the pressure in the boiler to press these particulates out.
Constant blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to flee continuously. Its purpose is to prevent water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be carried over with the steam - a disorder known as priming. Blowdown is also often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water.
Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a container. Most commonly found on a drinking water boiler.
Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the vapor can 'flash' safely and be used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere as the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
Automatic blowdown/constant heat recovery system: This technique allows the boiler to blowdown only once makeup water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the make-up water. No flash container is normally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the temperature of the make-up water.
Hand openings: These are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installing tubes and inspection of internal surfaces.
Vapor drum internals, some screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that can be used to turn from the burner or shut down gasoline to the boiler to avoid it from running once the water moves below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burnt without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure.
Surface blowdown collection: It provides a way for removing foam or other lightweight non-condensible chemicals that have a tendency to float on top of water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It really is designed to circulate drinking water back again to the boiler after they have expelled some of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater line. This may be suited to the relative aspect of the boiler, below the water level just, or to the top of the boiler.[10 -
Top give food to: Within this design for feedwater injection, the water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This can reduce boiler fatigue caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over some trays water is quickly heated which can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater pipes or bundles: A series of pipes or bundles of pipes in water drum or the vapor drum designed to cool superheated vapor, in order to supply auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry out vapor.
Chemical injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main vapor stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main steam stop/check valve: It is utilized on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Energy oil system:gasoline oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure measure attachment:
Name dish:
Registration dish:

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  1. Jamesfaica
    A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The liquid will not always boil. (In North America, the term "furnace" is normally used if the reason is not to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in various heating or procedures applications,[1 - [2 - including drinking water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power era, food preparation, and sanitation. Materials The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, of the austenitic types especially, is not found in wetted parts of boilers due to corrosion and stress corrosion breaking.[3 - However, ferritic stainless steel is often found in superheater sections that won't be exposed to boiling water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the Western "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is easier fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for steam locomotives), due to its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as metal) are used instead. For much of the Victorian "age of steam", the only materials used for boilermaking was the highest quality of wrought iron, with set up by rivetting. This iron was often from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice moved towards the use of steel instead, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded building, which is quicker and requires less labour. It ought to be mentioned, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode much slower than their modern-day steel counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the durability of old wrought-iron boilers far more advanced than those of welded metal boilers. Cast iron might be utilized for the heating vessel of domestic water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is to create warm water usually, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and try to avoid boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure steam boilers. Boiler Repairs Islington, Barnsbury, Canonbury, N1, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service http://boiler-repairs-islington.co.uk - Show more>>> Energy The source of heating for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric vapor boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission can be used as a heat source for producing steam also, either straight (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised heat exchangers called "steam generators" (PWR). High temperature recovery vapor generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine. Boiler efficiency there are two methods to measure the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method Immediate method -immediate approach to boiler efficiency test is more useful or even more common boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor stream Hg= Enthalpy of saturated steam in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of feed water in kcal/kg q= quantity of gas use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG) indirect method -to measure the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we are in need of a following parameter like Ultimate analysis of fuel (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint) percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas flue gas temperature at outlet ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg GCV of gas in kcal/kg ash percentage in combustible fuel GCV of ash in kcal/kg Configurations Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations: Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" in which a open fire heats a partially filled water container from below. 18th century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large volumes of very low-pressure vapor, barely above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low. Flued boiler with a couple of large flues-an early forerunner or kind of fire-tube boiler. Diagram of a fire-tube boiler Fire-tube boiler: Here, drinking water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume still left above to accommodate the vapor (vapor space). This is the type of boiler used in all steam locomotives nearly. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept completely surrounded by water in order to maintain the temperatures of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating system surface which may be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through another parallel tube or a lot of money of multiple pipes (two-pass or return flue boiler); additionally the gases may be taken along the edges and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a lot of money of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating surface compared to a single pipe and further increases heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers have a comparatively low rate of vapor production usually, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mainly burn off solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to those of the gas or water variety. Diagram of a water-tube boiler. Water-tube boiler: In this type, tubes filled with water are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations. Water tubes connect large drums Often, the lower ones made up of water and top of the ones steam and water; in other cases, such as a mono-tube boiler, water is circulated with a pump through a succession of coils. This kind gives high steam production rates generally, but less storage capacity than the above mentioned. Water pipe boilers can be designed to exploit any high temperature source and tend to be preferred in high-pressure applications since the high-pressure water/vapor is contained within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure. Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler where tubes are close together and water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube vapor generator in which the pipe is permanently filled with water. Super fast boiler, the pipe is held so hot that the water give food to is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers got some use in cars in the 19th century and this use continued in to the early 20th century. . 1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been mixed in the next manner: the firebox includes an set up of water pipes, called thermic siphons. The gases then pass through a conventional firetube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed - but have fulfilled with little success far away. Sectional boiler. In a ensemble iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is included inside ensemble iron areas.[citation needed - These areas are assembled on site to create the finished boiler. Safety See also: Boiler explosion To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations like the American Culture of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop criteria and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of guidelines and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.[5 - Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could open up poorly, resulting in a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When drinking water is changed into steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original travels and volume down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. As a result of this, vapor is a great way of moving energy and warmth around a site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale corrosion and formation. At best, this increases energy costs and can result in poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter vegetation and unreliable procedure. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failing and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler pipes can also aerosol scalding-hot vapor and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal in to the open fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories could demolish entire structures.[6 - A boiler which has a loss of give food to drinking water and is permitted to boil dry out can be extremely dangerous. If give food to water is sent in to the vacant boiler then, the tiny cascade of inbound drinking water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metallic shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be controlled even by basic safety vapor valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is bigger than the make-up water source could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and INSURANCE PROVIDER as a method to assist in preventing this problem from taking place, and thus reduce their insurance statements.[7 - [8 - Superheated steam boiler A superheated boiler on the steam locomotive. Main article: Superheater Most boilers produce steam to be utilized at saturation heat; that is, saturated steam. Superheated vapor boilers vaporize water and then further high temperature the steam in a superheater. This provides steam at higher heat, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating place because the higher vapor temperature requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature.[citation needed - There are several ways to circumvent this issue, typically by giving an economizer that heats the give food to drinking water, a combustion air heating unit in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. A couple of advantages to superheated steam that may, and will often, increase overall efficiency of both vapor generation and its utilization: gains in input temp to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There may also be useful restrictions in using moist steam, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades. Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to escape, the high temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous injury to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak indicates its existence clearly. Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The temperatures in this area is between 1 typically,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb high temperature by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing heat from a fluid. Some are a mixture of both types. Through either method, the extreme warmth in the flue gas path will also heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within. While the heat range of the vapor in the superheater goes up, the pressure of the vapor will not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9 - Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid damage to the turbine blading and associated piping. Supercritical steam generator Boiler for a power place. Main article: Supercritical steam generator Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of electric power frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. In contrast to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a higher pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases that occurs; the liquid is neither liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid. There is no era of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which steam bubbles can develop. As the liquid expands through the turbine levels, its thermodynamic condition drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which converts the power generator from which power is ultimately extracted. The fluid at that point may be considered a mixture of steam and liquid droplets as it passes into the condenser. This results in less fuel use and for that reason less greenhouse gas production slightly. The word "boiler" shouldn't be used for a supercritical pressure vapor generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this device. Boiler Repairs Islington, Barnsbury, Canonbury, N1, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service http://boiler-repairs-islington.co.uk - Boiler Repairs Islington, Barnsbury, Canonbury, N1, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service... Accessories Boiler fittings and accessories Pressuretrols to control the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a safety by setting the upper limit of steam pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which settings when the boiler fires to keep up pressure, and for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which handles the amount of fire. Safety valve: It is utilized to alleviate pressure and stop possible explosion of a boiler. Water level signals: They show the operator the level of liquid in the boiler, known as a sight glass also, water measure or drinking water column. Bottom level blowdown valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and rest on the bottom of a boiler. As the name implies, this valve is usually located on underneath of the boiler, and is occasionally opened to use the pressure in the boiler to press these particulates out. Constant blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to flee continuously. Its purpose is to prevent water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be carried over with the steam - a disorder known as priming. Blowdown is also often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water. Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a container. Most commonly found on a drinking water boiler. Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the vapor can 'flash' safely and be used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere as the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain. Automatic blowdown/constant heat recovery system: This technique allows the boiler to blowdown only once makeup water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the make-up water. No flash container is normally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the temperature of the make-up water. Hand openings: These are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installing tubes and inspection of internal surfaces. Vapor drum internals, some screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators). Low-water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that can be used to turn from the burner or shut down gasoline to the boiler to avoid it from running once the water moves below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burnt without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure. Surface blowdown collection: It provides a way for removing foam or other lightweight non-condensible chemicals that have a tendency to float on top of water inside the boiler. Circulating pump: It really is designed to circulate drinking water back again to the boiler after they have expelled some of its heat. Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater line. This may be suited to the relative aspect of the boiler, below the water level just, or to the top of the boiler.[10 - Top give food to: Within this design for feedwater injection, the water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This can reduce boiler fatigue caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over some trays water is quickly heated which can reduce limescale. Desuperheater pipes or bundles: A series of pipes or bundles of pipes in water drum or the vapor drum designed to cool superheated vapor, in order to supply auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry out vapor. Chemical injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH. Steam accessories Main vapor stop valve: Steam traps: Main steam stop/check valve: It is utilized on multiple boiler installations. Combustion accessories Energy oil system:gasoline oil heaters Gas system: Coal system: Soot blower Other essential items Pressure gauges: Feed pumps: Fusible plug: Inspectors test pressure measure attachment: Name dish: Registration dish:


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